(b) improving the ability to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and promoting resilience to climate change and the development of low greenhouse gas emissions so as not to endanger food production; Nicolas Hulot, a popular climate activist and Macron`s former environment minister, made headlines in August when he resigned from Macron`s cabinet on a live radio broadcast. His reason is that the French government was more of a word than action in the fight against climate change. Therefore, the main ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are forms of carbon pricing that can be reduced to either taxes or trade. “France`s draft budget for 2018 plans to increase carbon taxes to increase prices that are not covered by the European trading system,” Kurt Van Dender, head of the OECD`s environmental tax, told the International Tax Review. “France introduced a carbon tax in 2014 that started at a modest rate of 7 euros per tonne, but it will rise to 86 euros per tonne in 2022.” Because incomes are reduced in the same way for everyone, most people will recover more than they pay CO2 taxes,” said Mankiv, who is part of the group. “So if people understood the plan and thought it would be done as written, it should be politically popular.” At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015. [62] The Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties that are “top down,” characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives and must be implemented by states. [32] Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives. [33] Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law.